Cold forming

Stage I Stage III Stage V
Stage II Stage IV Stage VI

Stage VII | End stage


Wire diameter 10 mm, 32 pcs. / min., forming at 2000 kN, incl. thread moulding, series runs from 30,000 parts, finished part falling out, power requirement approx. 20 kW

Cold forming / cold extrusion

For cold forming or cold extrusion, Schmale Maschinenbau GmbH builds presses with servoelectric or hydromechanical drive. Our cold forming servo presses are integrated in our X2000NC wire bending machines and in our special machines for wire, tube and strip forming. We build servo-electric presses up to a force of 7000kN or 700 tons.
As one of the leading manufacturers of modular, automated systems for the forming of wire, pipe and strip, we combine and install aggregates for all industrial forming processes on one machine.

What is cold deformation?

Cold deformation is a process which leads to increased metal strength by plastic deformation. Cold deformation can be selectively used to increase the strength of a metal. Cold deformation, however, can also occur with uncontrolled and undesired plastic deformation such as in a car accident. Such accidental deformations are generally referred to as cold deformation. Cold deformation is used in industrial production in particular to achieve tight dimensional tolerances and excellent surface properties of metals. Popular industrial cold-deformation processes include: Bending, whetting, cold-rolling, deep-drawing, hammering, compressing, and shot peening. The effect of the metal’s increased strength following cold deformation is caused by a change in the metal’s crystal structure. The crystal lattices of the metal are arranged more tightly by the movement. As a result, more mechanical work is required to move and reshape the metal. The fact that cold deformation also changes other material parameters must also be considered. A decrease in ductility thus accompanies the high strength achieved by cold deformation. Along with the reduced ductility, the electrical conductivity and the initial permeability are also reduced. Cold deformation can increase the magnetizability, however, even resulting in the permanent magnetization of steel. The cold-deformation process is used in the most diverse industries. Wherever an increase in the hardness and yield strength of a metal is desired, cold-deformation processing can increase the quality of a metal. The service life of a blade can be increased, for example, by whetting. A large number of non-brittle metals and polymers are suitable for the cold-deformation process. The strength of alloys which are not suited for heat treatments is frequently increased by cold deformation. Whether the cold deformation is carried out at room temperature of if other operating temperatures are selected depends on the recrystallization temperature of the specific metal. One speaks of cold deformation only when the working temperature is below the recrystallization temperature. Since a certain final shape can rarely be achieved by one single cold-deformation process, different processes are frequently combined with each other in industrial production.

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